Periodontal Diseases Its Causes Symptoms And Cure
What Is A Periodontal Disease?
The term ‘Peri’ means around, and ‘Odontal’ refers to our teeth. Infection of the gums surrounding our teeth is called as periodontal disease. It is also known as gum disease. In adults, periodontal disease is one of the major causes of tooth loss. Periodontal disease can occur to anyone, but people more than the age of 30 are at higher risk.
Periodontal disease occurs at two main stages — Gingivitis and Periodontitis. Gingivitis affects only the gums, whereas in periodontitis, (severe form) all the tissues that support the teeth are damaged.
In 1999, a group of researchers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) the U.S. found that around 50% of U.S. citizens over the age of 30 suffer from bleeding gum or gingivitis.
In recent years, periodontal disease has been linked to various other conditions. According to some researchers, heart disease and atherosclerosis, premature births, stroke, respiratory disease and periodontal disease might have connections. It is a new area of study. Research on this matter is still going on, and many researchers are working on the possible links.cause
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Periodontal disease occurs mainly due to the infection of our gum tissues by bacteria, causing inflammation of the tissues that surround our teeth. These infections include the periodontal ligaments, alveolar bone, gums and the cementum that covers the root. It also builds up plaque. Diabetes, smoking, HIV/AIDS, certain medications and family history of the condition increase the risk of the disease. Misaligned teeth make us difficult to brush or floss properly, which leads to the formation of tartar and plaque. Sometimes stressful conditions can be a problem too. Stress weakens our body’s immune system, which makes periodontal disease challenging to treat. Sometimes it can lead to severe complications.
Hormonal changes can also affect our mouth. Menopause, pregnancy, puberty can increase the risk of gum infection temporarily. Poor nutrition can be a problem for our gums as well. Deficiency of vitamin C causes scurvy disease, which can make the periodontal illness a severe and complicated one. People with diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis are at higher risk of developing gum disease.
There are various medications which can cause dry mouth. These medications disturb the salivary glands causing less formation of saliva. In such cases, the plaque is easily formed in our teeth. Some medicines also affect our gums that leads to the inflammation of it. Improper oral hygiene is the primary reason for this disease.
Symptoms of periodontal disease include:
- Bleeding of gums or redness while biting, brushing teeth, and using dental floss.
- Frequent recurring of swelling up of the gum.
- Bad breath (halitosis), which can be downright embarrassing. According to some dental studies, about 85% of people with bad breath suffer from periodontal disease.
- Presence of blood in the spit while brushing teeth.
- Deep pockets between the gums and the teeth.
- Lengthening of the teeth.
- Loose teeth.
Oral hygiene should regularly be maintained to prevent periodontal disease. Following are some of the measures to avoid gum disease:
- Regular brushing at least twice a day disrupts the formation of bacterial growth and plaque. Therefore, we should brush regularly.
- Using interdental brushes to clean the space between our teeth.
- Flossing daily also prevents periodontal disease.
- Using mouthwash with antiseptic property destroys bacterial build up.
- Only a dental expert should do the professional cleaning of our teeth and regular check-ups. One should see his/her dentist if there are any signs of gum disease so that he/she can get proper treatment to avoid further complications such as loss of the tooth.
Dentists use special instruments to deep clean the decayed teeth and remove the plaque formation under the gum line. The deep cleansing procedure is also known as scaling and root planing. After the treatment, one should strictly follow the instructions of his/her dental hygienist to get the most benefits out.
Swollen and bleeding gums are the signs that bacteria have affected our gums. We should take necessary precautions and measures on time before the spreading of that infection. Such infections can destroy the structures of our jawbone, which can lead to severe complications. In such cases, we might have to extract our teeth. Periodontal disease can occur to anyone. One should take necessary precautions at the earliest stages of the disease to prevent major injuries. According to Dr. Alex Planes, a Vero Beach dentist, the right way to avoid periodontal disease is to maintain healthy oral hygiene.